Brexit Timeline

Current and Future Consequences of Brexit

What are the Brexit next steps? To help keep businesses informed about the latest Brexit developments, we have created this simple Brexit timeline tracking major events and upcoming Brexit key dates.

  • Further border controls come into force

    1st July 2022

    From 1 July 2022, businesses must fulfil new requirements for Export Health Certificates, as well as complete Safety and Security declarations on imports. Phytosanitary Certificates and physical checks on Sanitary and Phytosanitary goods at Border Control Posts will also commence on 1 July 2022.

    Brexit timeline

  • Temporary Easements on Border Controls End

    1st January 2022

    Businesses in Great Britain will no longer be able to delay submitting a full customs declaration and paying any customs duties (as part of the phasing in of UK border controls) when importing non-controlled goods from the EU. Customs declarations and duty payments will be due at the point of import from 1 January 2022.

    Also, requirements for pre-notification of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) goods, which were due to be introduced on 1 October 2021, will now also be introduced on 1 January 2022.

    Brexit timeline

  • EU Settlement Scheme Deadline

    30th June 2021

    EU citizens have until the 30 June 2021 to apply for the EU Settlement Scheme. The scheme guarantees the rights of EU nationals who were already living in the UK by the 31 December 2020 to continue to live and work in the UK.

    Brexit timeline

  • EU Parliament Ratifies Brexit Trade Deal

    28th April 2021

    The European Parliament has ratified the UK-EU Trade and Cooperation Agreement with MEPs voting in favour by 660 votes to 5. 

    Brexit timeline

  • Border Controls Introduced

    1st January 2021

    Goods moving between Great Britain and the EU are now subject to full border controls. Border controls on imports coming into Great Britain from the EU are being phased to help businesses adapt to the new trading arrangements. From the 1 January, traders importing non-controlled goods have up to 6 months to complete full customs declarations and pay any import duty. Find out more here

    Brexit timeline

  • Brexit Transition Period Ends

    31st December 2020

    The Brexit transition period ended on the 31st December (11pm GMT) and the new trade deal with the EU has now come into force on a provisional basis (subject to ratification by the EU parliament). Click here to find out more about the UK-EU Trade & Cooperation Agreement and what it means for businesses.

    Brexit timeline

  • UK Parliament Approves EU Trade Deal

    30th December 2020

    The UK parliament has ratified the post-Brexit trade deal with the EU. The deal was approved in the House of Commons by 521 votes in favour and 73 against.

    Brexit business no deal

  • UK and EU agree Free Trade Agreement

    24th December 2020

    The prime minister has announced that the UK has reached a free trade agreement with the EU securing tariff-free access to the EU market.

    Brexit business no deal

  • Legal deadline for signing off an extension

    1st July 2020

    July 1st is the legal deadline for signing off an extension to the post-Brexit transition period. Under the terms of the withdrawal agreement, the transition period is allowed to be extended by 12 or 24 months.

    Brexit timeline

  • UK rules out transition period extension

    12th June 2020

    The UK government formally notifies the EU that it will not be requesting an extension to the transition period beyond the 31st December 2020 deadline.

    Brexit timeline

  • UK Releases Negotiating Objectives

    27th February 2020

    The UK government has published its negotiating objectives for post-Brexit trade talks with formal negotiations set to begin on the 2nd March.

    Brexit timeline

  • EU Agrees Negotiating Mandate

    25th February 2020

    The EU has agreed its negotiating mandate for the next stage of the Brexit negotiations. The document is 46 pages long and sets out their main objectives for the next stage of the talks which covers the future trading relationship.

    Brexit timeline

  • UK Leaves EU

    31st January 2020

    The UK formally exited the European Union and has entered the Transition Period which lasts until the 31st December 2020. The current rules on trade, travel, and business for the UK and EU will continue to apply during the transition period, with new rules set to take effect from 1st January 2021.

    Brexit timeline

  • EU Parliament Ratifies Withdrawal Deal

    29th January 2020

    The EU parliament ratified the Withdrawal Agreement by 621 votes in favour to 49 against paving the way for the UK to leave the European Union at 11pm (UK time) on the 31st January

  • UK Parliament Ratifies Withdrawal Agreement Bill

    23rd January 2020

    The Withdrawal Agreement Bill is passed by the UK parliament and receives royal assent, allowing the UK government to formally ratify the Withdrawal Agreement.

  • Brexit Extension Granted

    19th October 2019

    Parliament has passed the Letwin amendment which withholds support for the prime minister’s Brexit deal until the legislation to implement the deal (Withdrawal Agreement Bill) has been passed. As the prime minister was unable to pass a Brexit deal through parliament by the midnight deadline on the 19th October, UK law required him to send a letter to the EU requesting a three-month extension to Article 50. The prime minister has requested an extension which the EU has now granted. The UK is now scheduled to leave the EU on the 31st January (or earlier if it agrees to the Prime Minister’s withdrawal deal).

    Brexit timeline

  • EU Summit

    17th & 18th October 2019

    This was the last major EU summit scheduled ahead of the Brexit deadline on October 31st. At the meeting, the European Council endorsed the new Withdrawal Agreement which had been renegotiated between the EU and the UK. The prime minister will now return to Westminster to try and secure parliament’s support for his Brexit deal through a meaningful vote.

    Brexit timeline of events

  • No-Deal Extension Legislation Confirmed

    9th September 2019

    A law requiring the Prime Minister to request an extension to Brexit negotiations received Royal Assent. The law states that if a Brexit deal has not been agreed by the 19th October the Prime Minister will have to request an extension to negotiations to the 31st January (it will then be up to the EU on whether they accept, decline or propose a different date). As it stands, the UK is still scheduled to leave the EU at 11pm on the 31st October.

  • New Prime Minister Selected

    23rd July 2019

    Boris Johnson confirmed as the winner of the Conservative Party Leadership contest and the next UK Prime Minister. This date also marked 100 days to go before the current Brexit deadline: 31st October.

    Brexit facts Boris Johnson

  • Brexit Extension Granted

    10th April 2019

    EU and UK leaders agree to a “flexible extension” to negotiations. The UK is now scheduled to leave the EU on the 31st October (or earlier if it agrees to the Prime Minister’s withdrawal deal) if it takes part in European Parliament elections in May. If the UK does not take part in EU Parliament Elections it will leave the EU on the 1st June.

    Brexit the facts

  • Cross Party Talks & Brexit Extension Request

    2nd April 2019

    The Prime Minister announced a change of Brexit strategy, inviting the Labour Party in for cross-party talks on compromise Brexit strategy. If a new proposal can be agreed, it will be put to a vote next week ahead of the EU Leaders’ emergency summit. On Friday (5th April) the Prime Minister formally requested that the EU extend Article 50 negotiations to the 30th June 2019.

  • No Majority on Next Steps…Again

    1st April 2019

    MPs failed to find a majority for any alternative plans for Brexit. The two most popular options were a “customs union” style proposal (defeated by 3 votes) and a “public vote” or second referendum proposal (defeated by 12 votes).

    Brexit business
    Image source - BBC

  • Prime Minister’s Deal Rejected...again

    29th March 2019

    The Prime Minister Deal was rejected by MPs by 334 votes to 286.

    Brexit the facts Prime Minister
    Copyright - 2017 Getty Images

  • No Majority on Next Steps

    27th March 2019

    MPs voted on a range of alternative Brexit options. None were backed by a majority. The two options that received the most support were exploring a “Customs Union” with the EU (defeated by 8 votes) and a “confirmatory referendum” or “people’s vote” on the final deal (defeated by 27 votes).

    Brexit next steps
    Source - Sky News - link

  • UK to Approve Brexit Extension

    25th March 2019

    The Prime Minister is expected to bring the EU’s extension proposal to Parliament w/c 25th March. It will need to be passed by the House of Commons and the House of Lords before next Friday in order to change the Brexit date currently set in legislation: 11pm on the 29th March

    Brexit key dates
    Source - Sky News - link

  • EU Leaders Offer Brexit Delay

    21st March 2019

    The leaders and heads of state of the EU 27 offered the UK an extension to Article 50 negotiations. If the UK agrees to the Withdrawal Deal by the 12th April they will extend negotiations to the 22nd May in order for the UK to pass the necessary legislation. If the UK fails to agree to the Deal by the 12th April they will have to agree next steps with the EU. The two main options are: 1) a significantly longer extension to pursue a new Brexit strategy, involving taking part in European Elections 2) a no-deal Brexit.

    Brexit timeline of delay
    Source - BBC News - link

  • MPs vote on Brexit Delay

    14th March 2019

    MPs voted in favour of requesting an extension to Article 50 negotiations (delaying Brexit day).

    Brexit timeline of events delay

  • MPs say No to a No-Deal Brexit

    13th March 2019

    Parliament voted in favour of an amended motion which aimed to rule out leaving the EU without a deal under any circumstances. The result of this vote is not legally binding. The Prime Minister also announced that MPs will be voting on whether or not to accept her deal for a third time in the week of the 18th March.

    Brexit business no deal

  • Deal Rejected Again

    12th March 2019

    Parliament held a second “meaningful vote” on whether to accept the Prime Minister’s Withdrawal Deal & Political Declaration. It was rejected by 391 votes to 242.

    Brexit stats for voting

  • Deal Rejected

    15th January 2019

    The UK Parliament held a “meaningful vote” on whether they accept the Withdrawal Deal. It was rejected by a record margin: 202 votes for & 432 votes against.

    Brexit Timeline no deal

  • Draft Deal Revealed

    14th November 2018

    Prime Minister Theresa May revealed the draft Withdrawal Agreement & Political Declaration on the future relationship between the UK and EU to her Cabinet.

  • Article 50 Activated

    29th March 2017

    The UK activated Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty giving the UK two years to negotiate the terms of its exit from the EU.

    Source - BBC - link

  • UK Votes Leave

    23rd June 2016

    The UK voted to leave the EU in a referendum. 72.2% of eligible voters took part. 51.9% voted Leave, 48.1% voted Remain.

    Source - BBC - link